Template::Tools::ttree - Process entire directory trees of templates
ttree [options] [files]
The ttree script is used to process entire directory trees containing template files. The resulting output from processing each file is then written to a corresponding file in a destination directory. The script compares the modification times of source and destination files (where they already exist) and processes only those files that have been modified. In other words, it is the equivalent of 'make' for the Template Toolkit.
It supports a number of options which can be used to configure
behaviour, define locations and set Template Toolkit options. The
script first reads the .ttreerc configuration file in the HOME
directory, or an alternative file specified in the TTREERC environment
variable. Then, it processes any command line arguments, including
any additional configuration files specified via the
When you run ttree for the first time it will ask you if you want it to create a .ttreerc file for you. This will be created in your home directory.
$ ttree Do you want me to create a sample '.ttreerc' file for you? (file: /home/abw/.ttreerc) [y/n]: y /home/abw/.ttreerc created. Please edit accordingly and re-run ttree
The purpose of this file is to set any global configuration options
that you want applied every time ttree is run. For example, you
can use the
copy option to provide regular expressions
that specify which files should be ignored and which should be copied
rather than being processed as templates. You may also want to set
recurse according to your preference.
A minimal .ttreerc:
# ignore these files ignore = \b(CVS|RCS)\b ignore = ^# ignore = ~$ # copy these files copy = \.(gif|png|jpg|pdf)$ # recurse into directories recurse # provide info about what's going on verbose
In most cases, you'll want to create a different ttree configuration
file for each project you're working on. The
cfg option allows you
to specify a directory where ttree can find further configuration
cfg = /home/abw/.ttree
-f command line option can be used to specify which configuration
file should be used. You can specify a filename using an absolute or
$ ttree -f /home/abw/web/example/etc/ttree.cfg $ ttree -f ./etc/ttree.cfg $ ttree -f ../etc/ttree.cfg
If the configuration file does not begin with
. or something
that looks like a MS-DOS absolute path (e.g.
ttree will look for it in the directory specified by the
$ ttree -f test1 # /home/abw/.ttree/test1
cfg option can only be used in the .ttreerc file. All the
other options can be used in the .ttreerc or any other ttree
configuration file. They can all also be specified as command line
Remember that .ttreerc is always processed before any
configuration file specified with the
-f option. Certain options
lib can be used any number of times and accumulate their values.
For example, consider the following configuration files:
cfg = /home/abw/.ttree lib = /usr/local/tt2/templates
lib = /home/abw/web/example/templates/lib
When ttree is invoked as follows:
$ ttree -f myconfig
lib option will be set to the following directories:
Any templates located under /usr/local/tt2/templates will be used in preference to those located under /home/abw/web/example/templates/lib. This may be what you want, but then again, it might not. For this reason, it is good practice to keep the .ttreerc as simple as possible and use different configuration files for each ttree project.
src option is used to define the directory containing the
source templates to be processed. It can be provided as a command
line option or in a configuration file as shown here:
src = /home/abw/web/example/templates/src
Each template in this directory typically corresponds to a single web page or other document.
dest option is used to specify the destination directory for the
dest = /home/abw/web/example/html
lib option is used to define one or more directories containing
additional library templates. These templates are not documents in
their own right and typically comprise of smaller, modular components
like headers, footers and menus that are incorporated into pages templates.
lib = /home/abw/web/example/templates/lib lib = /usr/local/tt2/templates
lib option can be used repeatedly to add further directories to
the search path.
A list of templates can be passed to ttree as command line arguments.
$ ttree foo.html bar.html
It looks for these templates in the
src directory and processes them
through the Template Toolkit, using any additional template components
lib directories. The generated output is then written to
the corresponding file in the
If ttree is invoked without explicitly specifying any templates
to be processed then it will process every file in the
-r (recurse) option is set then it will additionally iterate
down through sub-directories and process and other template files it finds
$ ttree -r
If a template has been processed previously, ttree will compare the modification times of the source and destination files. If the source template (or one it is dependant on) has not been modified more recently than the generated output file then ttree will not process it. The -a (all) option can be used to force ttree to process all files regardless of modification time.
$ tree -a
Any templates explicitly named as command line argument are always processed and the modification time checking is bypassed.
accept options are used to specify Perl
regexen to filter file names. Files that match any of the
options will not be processed. Remaining files that match any of the
copy regexen will be copied to the destination directory. Remaining
files that then match any of the
accept criteria are then processed
via the Template Toolkit. If no
accept parameter is specified then
all files will be accepted for processing if not already copied or
# ignore these files ignore = \b(CVS|RCS)\b ignore = ^# ignore = ~$ # copy these files copy = \.(gif|png|jpg|pdf)$ # accept only .tt2 templates accept = \.tt2$
suffix option is used to define mappings between the file
extensions for source templates and the generated output files. The
following example specifies that source templates with a
suffix should be output as
Or on the command line,
You can provide any number of different suffix mappings by repeating this option.
depend_file options allow you to specify
how any given template file depends on another file or group of files.
depend option is used to express a single dependency.
$ ttree --depend foo=bar,baz
This command line example shows the
--depend option being used to
specify that the foo file is dependant on the bar and baz
templates. This option can be used many time on the command line:
$ ttree --depend foo=bar,baz --depend crash=bang,wallop
or in a configuration file:
depend foo=bar,baz depend crash=bang,wallop
The file appearing on the left of the
= is specified relative to
lib directories. The file(s) appearing on the right
can be specified relative to any of these directories or as absolute
$ ttree --depend foo=bar,/tmp/baz
To define a dependency that applies to all files, use
* on the
left of the
$ ttree --depend *=header,footer
or in a configuration file:
Any templates that are defined in the
wrapper options will automatically be added to the
list of global dependencies that apply to all templates.
depend_file option can be used to specify a file that contains
$ ttree --depend_file=/home/abw/web/example/etc/ttree.dep
Here is an example of a dependency file:
# This is a comment. It is ignored. index.html: header footer menubar header: titlebar hotlinks menubar: menuitem # spanning multiple lines with the backslash another.html: header footer menubar \ sidebar searchform
Lines beginning with the
# character are comments and are ignored.
Blank lines are also ignored. All other lines should provide a
filename followed by a colon and then a list of dependant files
separated by whitespace, commas or both. Whitespace around the colon
is also optional. Lines ending in the
\ character are continued
onto the following line.
Files that contain spaces can be quoted. That is only necessary for files after the colon (':'). The file before the colon may be quoted if it contains a colon.
As with the command line options, the
* character can be used
as a wildcard to specify a dependency for all templates.
* : config,header
ttree also provides access to the usual range of Template Toolkit
options. For example, the
options correspond to the
ttree -h for a summary of the options available.
Andy Wardley <firstname.lastname@example.org>
With contributions from Dylan William Hardison (support for
dependencies), Bryce Harrington (
Mark Anderson (
debug options), Harald Joerg and Leon
Brocard who gets everywhere, it seems.
2.68, distributed as part of the Template Toolkit version 2.19, released on 27 April 2007.
Copyright (C) 1996-2007 Andy Wardley. All Rights Reserved.
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.